PROPOSAL NO: RDO-3-33457-00
DATE SUBMITED: 05/23/03
TOTAL COST PROPOSED: $253,729.56
TITLE: Design Build Test a Production Prototype Hybrid PVT Roof Panel
SUBCONTRACTOR: (ISRSI) INNER SOLAR ROOF SYSTEMS, INC.
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: JOE ALLEGRO
ADDRESS: 731 N.E. 69 ST. BOCA RATON, FLORIDA 33487
WEB ADDRESS: http://innersolar.tripod.com
TECHNICAL ABSTRACT: Inner Solar Roof Systems, Inc. incorporated in 1980, has a very strong intellectual property position as evidenced by the company's patents. This new innovative technology offers major improvements over current solar design. With research and development of a solar heating roof tile now in the production prototype stage, the ISRSI roof tile heating system is being used to establish basic design and specifications for the planned production of the PVT hybrid tile / roof collector, which when installed will maximize energy savings and efficiency. This technology will be used to produce a solar roof system, which can be brought to the consumer market through the efforts of various existing commercial or residential tile roof manufactures. The proposed concept presents an aesthetically appealing solar roof tile collector. With most of the solar heating and electric energy being produced during peek daylight hours, the system with 162 single crystal PV cells mounted onto each panel provides a hybrid system energy output of 2.7 K.W. with an insulation material providing a K-Factor BTU/in/hr/sq./F at 0.15. Utilization of the roof tile design thereby increases solar collector exposure area allowing the combination of solar heating and solar electric to reduce high temperature build up within the PV cells improving energy output. The hybrid solar heating roof / tile panel is fabricated from simple thermo-formerd weatherized PVC plastic material and provides mounting for PV technology, which will be an interconnecting code-approved product installed on a roof structure, resulting in a cost-efficient, multipurpose roofing material. Therefore, a part of the system cost can be credited as roofing application. The proposed research for this project will be to advance the technology of widespread use of solar energy in both the new and retrofit market. Efforts to-date has confirmed the technology feasibility and that it can be scaled to commercial manufacturing needs. The product fills a well-defined multi-purpose need in the marketplace these markets have been well researched. This product contains overall feature that no other product can offers in combination to provide energy saving higher than competing technologies.
Company History: As the founder of Inner Solar Roof Systems, Inc. Mr. Allegro has designed and prepared several U.S. Patents, including patents for the Inner Solar Roof System (Patent No. 4,158,357, No. 4,164,014 No. 4,953,537. Patent number 4,146,014 teach the concept of using shingles as part of a solar heating exchange fluid system. Patent number 4,158,357 shows that energy panels may be distributed along slops of a roof while also functioning as overlapped shingles. Patent number 4,953,537 shows a barrel-shaped section of molded plastic formed of two spaced plastic sheets for concentrating more solar energy toward an internal conduit or pass-way for water. Patent number 5,022,381 shows an application to additional barrel design which can be integrated into part of a solar energy fluid flow or electrolytic to include photovoltaic.Technical Feasibility of
Proposed Product: The companies current R&D efforts have been directed towards the development of a passive liquid heating and cooling roof system designed as a cost-efficient roof material. This hybrid PVT solar roof system will utilize a barrel tile roof design having additional .8 square feet solar concentration area within a total 10.0 square feet roof coverage area. Inner Solar Roof Systems utilizing single crystal PV combined with process heating will run battery charging for electric vehicle, appliances and power inverters which could cycle power back to the utility line more effectively and thereby lower electric costs. This hybrid system will have the ability to reduce the elevated PV temperature during peek solar exposure, increasing the power generated. Computer modeling and performance data was calculated by Florida Atlantic University at 6,488 Btu/h heat transfer efficiency, all information upon request.
Inner Solar Roof System, Inc.: as the prime contractor of Phase III - Phase IV will achieve the tooling to process the modules for thermal mounting for electrical laminate. SunWize Technologies will supply laminate to thermal mounting for electrical. (SunWize Technologies for electrical / Inner Solar for thermal efficiencies). SunWize Technology will also supply the laminate that will be bonded to the solar thermal unit in Phase III and both companies will provide engineering and technical support for wiring between PV/Thermal modules (and between PV/Thermal modules on the roof and the balance-of-system components). Together we would test the modules for electrical and thermal efficiencies in Phase III. Phase I - Phase II have been eliminated due to engineering of laminate and thermal concept, research, development have been completed. Phase III applies to build and testing the PV/Thermal modules for BTU with laminate at Florida Solar Energy Center and the remainder of tests. Phase IV applies to market annalist market demonstration of model a home with PV/Thermal modules mounting on the roof and the balance-of-system components for public acceptance.PVT
Hybrid: Dual designed system is capable of supplying approximately 40 percent more power during peek solar exposure through solar convection, cooling the single crystal PV by means of water circulation and heat exchange. Research to development of the PV cells to the collector body to providing good heat transfer using a double-faced aluminum adhesive or a thermal bonding material applied to each three-cell string. Electrical connections from module to module using both series and parallel wiring network to adjust for 24 volts at 96 watts output per collector. Positive and negative power connection will be wire at each barrel end, likewise the inlet and outlet fitting providing system liquid heat exchange transfer. Sun Wize Technologies will provide the mounting and wiring assembled for the 54 three-cell strings PV modules.
Collector Design: The manufacturing process, twin sheet thermoplastic pressure forming, leaving a finished part with a sealed liquid heating path within two sheets of formed plastic 3.0 mm thick providing a liquid pathway 5.0 mm thick covering the entire surface area. One approach of this roof collector is to us a rigid plastic structure for PV cell mounting. Assembly of the solar roof collector will require two injections molded plastic fitting for liquid transfer. Electric power is obtained using 54 three-cell string module12" long x 2" wide attached to the collector surface. Mounting the collector to a roof structure requires a 51. mm flap at the top and a 14. mm flap at the bottom using a 1/8 stainless steel mounting hardware to secure the collector to the edifice. Weight of the collector is estimated 55 pounds and the foot area is 10.8 square ft.
Project Summary: Several areas for product development have been identified and will be pursued by Inner Solar Roof Systems, Inc. management. The initial focus for product improvement will be directed in relation to mounting the three cell strings to the solar heating roof collector body. Verify computer modeling and engineering calculation for Btu/h efficiency and mounting instructions that have been completed in accordance with the latest building code and ASCE 7-93 for exposure C and category 1, with a wind load of 110 miles per hour. Using materials having NSF and UL Lab approval. Manufacture production of 50 hybrid solar roof collectors and install 20-hybrid collectors to a model home system. Phase III provides energy efficiency records from Per- demonstration model home testing located at 371 N.E. 69 ST. home office of Inner Solar Roof System Inc. Verify all testing using the remaining 30 collectors for product testing for compliance by Dade County, the authority in code enforcement. Phase IV applies to demonstration a model home with PV/Thermal modules mounting on the roof and the balance-of-system components. To establish acceptance in new housing development market.Observed Power VS. Temperature Relationships: While a PV systems power output is generally proportional to irradiate (except at low irradiance), what is less well understood is the relationship between power and module temperature. Module manufacture typically report a power vs. temperature coefficient of about 0.4%/C for single-crystal and polycrystalline silicon modules, and about 0.25%/C for amorphous silicon modules. These coefficients are measured at 1,000 Watts/ square meter irradiate, are presumed constant. An evaluation, done in part by the DOE/NTIS, demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of solar heating potential simulating a roof covering. Tests were conducted to determine voltage loss during elevated PV cell temperature, and the difference combined with passive solar heating to reduce the PV cell temperature. A PV cell was submitted under normal operation temperature at 72 degrees Fahrenheit having a .486 voltage output. Testing proved that when the temperature was increased to 180 degrees Fahrenheit the voltage decrease to .280 volts, or 40 percent power loss. Other test shows the following
Temperature Voltage %Power Lost
150 Degrees Fahrenheit .340 30 Percent
130 Degrees Fahrenheit .380 20 Percent
110 Degrees Fahrenheit .420 10 Percent
Output: Technology designed to lower the temperature to the single crystal PV, also provides roof foam insulation to the building structure when supplying clean inverted AC power into utility line or replacing costly utility rates, net metering savings, etc. The 54 three-cell string modules per collector will provides 24 volts at 96 watts, to include an additional 40% power increases to130 watts by means of lowering the PV temperature during peek day light hours. A 20 collector's array at 200 square feet will feed 2.7 k.w. clean power into building peek-load or budget. Readily adapted to heat swimming pool, spa, space, and radiant floor heating.Project Description: Review test results of pressure drop studies and emissivity / absorptivity test for their application to the initial system designs for re-tooling. Sandia Laboratories will provide information to improve collector efficiency, for new design. Incorporate test results from Task 1 to optimize mechanical design related to the quality control, durability and reliability of product. Develop process to integrate and mount electric to thermal body followed by testing for product approval.Project Objective: The companies Phase III R&D efforts will be directed towards the development of a process heating combined with a solar electric PVT system designed as a cost-efficient roof material in application. The purpose of the Phase III research is to take the invention to pre-commercial prototype stage, and test sections of a solar roof collector for production development (Tasks1 to 6).
The U.S. Solar Phtovoltaic Industry: The PV industry experienced rapid growth during the middle and late 1980s, with shipments doubling from 7.1 megawatts of cells and panels in 1986 to 14.1 megawatts in 1989. During the same period, world PV trade increased from 26 to 40.2 megawatts. The technologies for both solar thermal and photovoltaic systems are now sufficiently reliable and efficient to make them commercially viable. According to a recent report by The Midwest Research Institute, Golden, Colorado solar power contributes almost nothing to the atmospheric greenhouse effect and poses few, if any, of the other environmental problems associated with conventional energy sources. The report goes on further to state "solar thermal energy is on the threshold of competing economically with conventional power and is now viable for international markets."
Market: Solartile roof system will be distributed nationwide through Inner Solar Roof System, Inc. We propose to work with companies to expand the market for solar roofing using existing tile roof designs similar to the contour and shape of Solartile. We are committed to expanding the market for solar roofing using existing roof tile designs and integrating them with the Solartile roof system. Solartile will be almost identical to that standard roof tile. Inner Solar Roof System assuming into a mutually acceptable agreement to sell Solartile to it's distributors for a reasonable cost. The product will be shipped directly to customers from Inner Solar warehouse reducing inventory cost to the manufacturer. Inner Solar will provide marketing materials as well as training for their sales force in product installation and support.Solar Potential: Solar collectors have been marketed to homeowners and new construction builders since the early 1970s. However, the industry has lacked strong, stable growth. Despite these declining sales, the marker demand for solar and alternative energy sources continues to remain. Public Utilities Fortnightly stated report it is difficult to estimate the amount of photovoltaic energy produced in the U.S. because much of it is used in remote locations, and because information is not reported. One recent estimate proffered that 25 M.W. of photovoltaic systems is interconnected with the U.S. population. There will also be open to Inner Solar new application that no existing solar collector system can fulfill. Inner Solars technology will create demand in new markets such as residential construction developers, commercial contractors, and government facilities, which have not as yet extensively utilized solar collection systems. Also targeted will be large commercial and municipal markets for applications in schools, health clubs, Laundromats, etc. used simultaneously to supply power more efficiently
Tile Roof Savings: ($70. per collector) Each collector replaces 10 square feet of tiled area.
Material Cost Collector Homes Heating System (200sq.ft.)
40,000 lbs. @ $51.00 @ 1,250 @ 62 5 panel @ 6,488 btu\h @ 20 panels 25,952
20,000 lbs. @ $51.72 @ 652 @ 31 Area btu\h Product Cost
10,000 lbs. @ $53.40 @ 312 @ 16 200 sq.ft. @ 19,200 Typical $2,868
200 sq.ft. @ 25,952 ISRSI $1,745
Three-Cell Strings / Collector / Homes Electric / Heating System (200sq.ft.)
2,500 @ $20.00 @ 46 @ 2.3 1 panel @ 136 watts 20 panels@2,720 watts
5,000 @ $17.85 @ 92 @ 4.3 Area / Watts / Volts / Product / Cost
10,000 @ $16.97 @ 185 @ 9.2 200 sq.ft ./ 2.0kw / 48 v / Typical $12,166
100,000 @ $15.82 @ 1,851 @ 92.5 200 sq.ft ./ 4.6 kw / 24 v / ISRSI $21,463.
Application Panels / Cost / Savings Total Cost
*Space Heating 25 $3,850. $1,750. $2,100.
* Radiant Floor 20 $3,808. $1,400. $1,680
Three-cell Assemble $200.00
* Pool Heating 20 $5,235 $1,400. $3,835 54 (three-cell strings) $810.00
* DHW Heating 8 $2,008 $ 560. $ 1,448 Plastic Panel Body $133.16
* SPA Heating 4 $1,004 $ 280. $ 724
* Hybrid Electric 20 $22,863. $ 1,400. $21,463. Total Hybrid Cost $1,143.16.
Non-hybrid panel @6,488 btu\h divided by 3413 =1,900 watts @ 20 panels = 1,900 watts
Hybrid Electric panel @ 136 watts increasing power by 40% @ 20 panels = 2,720 watts
Hybrid Solar Electric / Heating Collector System Total Watts 4,620 watts
(BTU Divide by 3413 X Kilowatt Hr. X 1,000)
Tasks (in months)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Task 1: ---------------- 1
Task 2: -------------2
Task 3: ----------3
Task 4: -------------4
Task 5: -----------------------5
Task 6: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6
Sandia National Laboratories:
(Task: (1-2 Completed Task 3-4 to be completed)Task: 1
Complete pressure drops on existing flow channel designs. Task: 2
Testing for emissivity and absorptivity of the collector surface.Task: 3
Review solar rating and certification testing.Task: 4
Modeling and follow up analysis in which we will use the formulation from task 1-3 recommend design change to the collector.
(Additional data by Sandia Labs. and University of New Mexico available upon request.)
Indiana Rubber: (150) Injection molded thermal connectors and tooling.
Berrien Metal: (50) Mounting hardware units and tooling.
Spencer Industry: (50) PVT solar roof panels (100) sheets of PVC plastic to develop.
SunWize Technologies: LCC: (2,700) mini modules for (50) PVT collectors assembled with (54) PV mini modules or three-cell strings modules per collector configure wired for testing.
Dade County: (1) Report all PVT test results for their approval.
Florida Solar Energy Center: (3) PVT collectors for Thermal Solar Certification.
Asphalt Technologies: (14) Collectors TAS 100-95 / TAS-102-95 / Impact TestUnited Laboratories: (11) Collectors for UL-790 / PVT certification.
Sandia Labs: (1) Transparent collector for improve efficiencies of flow design.
Inner Solar: (20) PVT collectors (pre-model home installation for demonstration testing).